Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Historical Overview of Child Development Theories Part 3

Jean Piaget - Cognitive Development Theory
Predicts that children construct knowledge and awareness through manipulation and exploration of the environment. Cognitive development occurs through observable stages.

  • Sensorimotor birth to two years
    • Begins to make use of imitation, memory, and thought
    • Begins to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden
    • Moves from reflex action to goal-directed action
  • Preoperational two to seven years
    • Gradually develops use of language and ability to think in symbolic form
    • Able to think operations through logically in one direction
    • Has difficulty seeing another person's points of view
Lev Vygotsky - Sociocultural Theory
Culture (values, beliefs, and customs) of a social group are passed on through social interactions between children and elders
Cognition takes place when children interact with their environment, their elders, and their peers.
Key words:
  • Private speech (by talking to one's self a child develops cognition)
  • Zone of proximal development (the distance between what a child can do independently and what they can do with support)
  • Learning takes place through
    • Intersubjectivity
    • Scaffolding
    • Make Believe Play
Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Human Needs
Level 1: Physical needs (food, air, water, shelter)
Level 2: Safety needs (protection from harm, security, consistency)
Level 3: Social needs (friendship, companionship, bonding)
Level 4: Ego needs (importance, being considered special)
Level 5: Self-Actualization needs (helping others, being creative, growing spiritually)

J. Bowlby - Ethological Theory of Attachment
The infant's relationship to the parent starts as a set of innate signals keeping the caregiver close to the baby.
The baby internalizes the bond with the caregiver, the bond becomes the basis for and a vital part of the personality.
This relationship becomes the model for all future close relationships.
Four Stages of Attachment
  1. Pre-attachment (birth to six weeks) baby grasps, cries, smiles, and gazes to keep the caregiver engaged
  2. Attachment-in-the-making (six weeks to eight months) baby responds differently to strangers than to familiar caregivers. Face-to-face interactions relieve stress. The baby expects the caregiver to respond when signaled.
  3. Clear-cut attachment (eight months to two years) separation anxiety is exhibited. Baby protests caregiver departure. Baby acts deliberately to maintain caregiver attention.
  4. Formation of reciprocal relationship (eighteen months onward) Children negotiate with caregiver. Children are willing to give and take in relationships.

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