Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Historical Overview of Child Development Theories Part 4

Urie Bronfenbrenner - Ecological Systems Theory

Five nested structures influencing child development. This theory has wide implications for understanding and categorizing the factors that affect the care of a child.

  1. Microsystem The closest system to the child. Encompasses the affects adults and children have on each other. This system contains the child, the immediate nuclear family, and specialists relating to the child (caregivers).
  2. Mesosystem Entities fostering children's development. Encompasses the connections between home, school, child care centers, nature, local culture, and community
  3. Exosystem Social settings that do not contain the child, but still directly affect their development, such as community health and social services and other public agencies. Includes grass roots groups who lobby and advocate for schools and child care services. Also included in this system are parent education and the parents' workplace.
  4.  Macrosystem Consists of laws, customs, and the general policies of the social system (government). The child is ultimately affected  by decisions made at this level. This is where the availability of resources (money) are determined.
  5. Chronosystem World events such as wars, terrorist attacks, global economic crises that affect the child directly or indirectly through the individuals involved or the ensuing emotional impact on the people and systems that interact with the child.
Michael Watson - Developmental Learning Skills Model
Three major sensory modalities are used to input information:
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Kinesthetic
There are two responses to these modalities
  • Verbal
  • Motor
Children must possess the visual, auditory, and motor acuity and coordination necessary to input stimuli and they must develop fine motor coordination and verbal skills to output or respond accurately

There are six levels of information processing.
  1. Sensory Coordination: Coordinating sensory systems
  2. Focal Attention: Perceptual screening
  3. Memory: Stimuli recorded because it is meaningful
  4. Discrimination: Separating important elements of stimuli
  5. Association: Connecting stimuli on the basis of repeated presentation or similarities
  6. Conceptualization: Abstract concept formation

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